Thursday, May 21, 2020

Sigmund Freud, Joseph Conrad, And Tadeusz Borowski

Sigmund Freud, Joseph Conrad, and Tadeusz Borowski were some of the most influential voices during 20th century Europe. Europe at the time was transitioning from being one of the most powerful and intellectual nations, to now experiencing human suffering, revolutions, and war. Due to this, these intellectual thinkers began to drift away from 19th-century enlightenment ideas, such as liberty, progress, and a constitutional government. They began to question Europe s achievements and started criticizing progress, rationality, and human nature. Through their experience, ideas, and literature were able to see the what caused the change in society and their views on it . Freud mainly focuses on human nature and questions the desire, ideas ,and beliefs that shape a human, he then further analyses them. We see in his literature, Civilization and its Disconnect, that he questions religion and the belief in God. He himself does not believe in God, but wants to know why many people follow and trust something that they cannot see. He also questions the concept of human relationships. Knowing that a two person relationship and interaction is inevitable and that it is a part of life, but he does not know if a third relationship, and further on, is necessary. Regardless, human relationships are a part of society, and one of causes of civilizations, which Freud defines as â€Å"the whole some of achievement and the regulations which distinguish our lives† (Freud). With one of the achievements

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing 1984 And Fahrenheit 451 - 912 Words

Both 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 predict a dystopian future where information is tightly controlled and the populace seems to care little for the fact that they are being lied to and manipulated into working for the ambitions of their government. Both governments in the story have taken control of the media and this the population, and both characters are apart of agencies that help keep the government in control of the people. In Fahrenheit 451 the man is a fireman and burns all of the books that he can find, this keeps the population dumb and easily controllable. In 1984 Winston works for the Ministry of Truth, its job is to help edit news and entertainment in order to keep the party in line and be able to misinform the prolls. Both of these characters unknowingly worked for the party and political establishment. In Fahrenheit 451 Faber a retired English professor was in the minority in fighting for the right to have books. He is an older man and relies on the younger Guy Montag in order to help him achieve his goals of preserving the knowledge of books for a future generation. Guy Montag is a middle aged man similarly to Winston who also works at keeping the political establishment in power through the burning of books. The society within 1984 though much like the society in Fahrenheit 451 has many differences mainly in the way it is set up and how the government runs. The Inner party makes up only 2% of those that live within Oceania. They make all of the policies, andShow MoreRelatedComparing 1984 And Fahrenheit 451928 Words   |  4 Pages1984 and Fahrenheit 451 1984, written by George Orwell, and Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury, are similar to each other, however they also have several distinct differences. Both 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 are dystopian themed novels that deal with an overbearing and extremely powerful government. The nations in both novels are involved in wars that never seem to end, and their main characters begin to doubt the government and what society expects of everyone. In both 1984 and Fahrenheit 451, theRead MoreComparing Dystopic Worlds in George Orwells 1984 and Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451.2257 Words   |  10 Pagesimage of utopia, and yet to the reader seems like a foreign, inhumane residence dominated by an all-powerful government. George Orwells 1984, and Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 depicts two different dystopic worlds. The settings of both books are different and the characters are unique; however, both of these books are also very similar. 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 are similar dystopic literatures by a common theme of censorship in which the government withholds or censors information, by a similar threadRead More 198451: The Year of the Salamander Essay1864 Words   |  8 Pages198451: The Year of the Salamander When comparing the masterpieces of George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four and Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 the astute reader is immediately able to see a minimum of two recurring themes in both of them. â€Å"Orwell had produced an imaginative treatise of totalitarianism, cutting across all ideologies, warning of the threat to humanity should any government, of whatever political complexion, assume absolute power† (Nineteen Eighty-Four 12). Meanwhile Bradbury describedRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesConflict 375 SKILL LEARNING 376 Interpersonal Conflict Management 376 Mixed Feelings About Conflict 376 Diagnosing the Type of Interpersonal Conflict 378 Conflict Focus 378 Conflict Source 380 Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management Approach 383 Comparing Conflict Management and Negotiation Strategies 386 Selection Factors 386 Resolving Interpersonal Confrontations Using the Collaborative Approach A General Framework for Colla borative Problem Solving 391 The Four Phases of Collaborative Problem SolvingRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 Pages4 Hypotheses Tests for a Population Mean 550 10.5 Power and Probability of Type II Error 562 10.6 Interpreting and Communicating the Results of Statistical Analyses 571 Activity 10.1 Comparing the t and z Distributions 574 Activity 10.2 A Meaningful Paragraph 575 Graphing Calculator Explorations 580 11 Comparing Two Populations or Treatments 583 11.1 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples 583 11.2 Inferences Concerning theRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagestime, but the only evidence for this was Nathan’s own claim that he was 10 miles away at the time. 4. Evaluate the quality of this argument: All ice eventually melts when heated to over 47 degrees Fahrenheit. The ice in the refrigerator of the President of France was heated to over 47 degrees Fahrenheit that day. So, the ice in the President’s refrigerator eventually melted.67 This is a very strong argument. It is deductively valid and all its premises (there’s just one) are true. 66 The argument

Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide Free Essays

Wavelength Conversion by Degenerate Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide Abstract – Four-wave mixing (FWM) is one of the interesting nonlinearities in optical systems. It is mainly used for wavelength conversion. To investigate the factors that affect the wavelength conversion efficiency, the evolution of Four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon waveguide is modeled using matlab. We will write a custom essay sample on Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide or any similar topic only for you Order Now The method of modeling is described. The effects of input pump power and waveguide length on the conversion efficiency are investigated. Results show that when propagating along a 0. 048m silicon waveguide, both the input pump power and stroke power decreases, while anti-stroke power increases first and then decreases along the waveguide. It is also shown that for a 0. 048 silicon waveguide, output anti-stroke power is the maximum when the input pump power is 3W. Also, when the input pump power is kept constant, there is a most effective waveguide length for wavelength conversion. Keywords -FWM; model; conversion efficiency; input pump power; waveguide length 1 Introduction Four-wave mixing (FWM) is an inter modulation phenomenon in optical systems, whereby interaction between three waves (two pump waves and a signal wave) produce a fourth wave (idler wave) [1]. This phenomenon can be used for all optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) and entangled photon generation [2, 3]. As extremely small core of si wires produce the nonlinear optical effect even under low optical power, Silicon is used as waveguide in our project for practical wavelength conversion by FWM process with longer waveguide lengths and smaller propagation loss[4]. Factors that affect optical wavelength conversion are being studied to enhance the conversion efficiency. It has therefore become important to study FWM in silicon waveguide theoretically to increase the conversion efficiency for further experiment. In our project, FWM matlab to study the factors that affect the conversion efficiency. This paper discusses the factors that affect FWM’s conversion efficiency in silicon waveguide. Theoretical treatment is presented in section 2, where FWM in silicon waveguide is described. The method to model FWM in silicon waveguide using matlab is described in section 3. Results are shown in section 4. Results show that both the input pump power and the waveguide length play an important part in the FWM’s conversion efficiency. 2 THEORY The FWM process involves the interaction of four waves (two Pump waves, one signal and one idler wave) as they propagates along a medium. In our project, silicon waveguide is used as the medium. The schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide is shown in figure 1. Here, E represents the electric field of the respective waves and normalized such that power P=|E|^2. Subscripts ‘p’, ‘s’ and ‘a’ represent pump, signal and idler respectively. The superscript ‘f’ represents forward propagating waves. [pic] Figure 1 Schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide . 3 METHODOLOGY The evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide can be modeled by the following differential equations [1]. [pic][pic][pic][pic] where Aeff is the waveguide effective core area, ? is the wavelength, ? is the linear propagation loss and ? is the TPA coefficient, ? is the FCA cross section and ? eff is the effective carrier lifetime. h and c follow their usual physical meaning of Plank’s constant and free-space speed of light respectively. k denotes the linear phase mismatch and can be expressed as[pic]. ? is the nonlinear parameter assumed to be the same for three wavelengths and defined as [pic] where n2 is the nonlinear refractive index. To simulate the evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide, the above four differential equation are solved simultaneously using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF) method [2]. | Parameters |Input-Output simulation values | |? |100/4. 34 m-1 | |Aeff |0. 17? 10^(-12) m2 | |? 0. 7? 10^(-11) m/W | |? p |1310? 10^(-9) m | |? eff |1? 10^(-9) s | |c |2. 998? 10^(8) | |h |6. 626? 10^(-34) Js | |? k |0 m/s | |? p |1. 0297? 10-21m2 | |? |2. 43 ? 10^(-11) m/W | 4 RESULTs and discussion . 1 Modelling of FWM in silicon waveguide Given Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pump power, stroke power and anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the position in the waveguide. [pic][pic][pic]The figures above show that when propagating in the waveguide, both the pump power and stroke power decrease while the anti-stoke power increases. This is as expected, as the interaction of the pump wave and stroke wave produce the anti-stroke wave. The increase of the anti-stroke power comes from the decrease of the pump and stroke power. It can be seen that, at the end of the waveguide, the pump power is only 0. 26W and the stoke power is only 0. 026W. Both of them decrease 74% of their original power. Both the pump power and stroke power decrease fast at the beginning, and then their decrease rate becomes slower when propagating further in the waveguide. This implies that the higher the pump power and the stroke power, the higher the propagation loss. As a result, the anti-stroke power increases fast at the beginning and then its increasing rate slows down. At the length of 0. 42m, the power of the anti-stroke reaches its maximum value which is about 3. 2*10^-5W. Then the anti-stroke power starts to decrease slowly. This may be because when the pump and stroke power is small, the gain of the anti-stroke power is less than its propagation loss. 4. 2 Effects of input pump power on conversion efficiency Given Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pp changes from 0 to 10W with step 0. 2W. The graph of the output stroke power and the output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the input pump power. [pic] Figure 2. 1 Output stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that the larger the input pump power, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the larger the input pump power, the larger the propagation loss. The output stroke decreases slower when the input pump power is higher. [pic] Figure 2. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that when the input pump power is less than3W, the higher the input pump power, the higher the output anti-stroke power. This is as expected, as more input power can be converted to anti-stroke power when the input pump power is larger. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the input pump power. As the higher the input pump power, the higher the propagation loss. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the propagation loss dominates. 4. 3 Effects of waveguide length on conversion efficiency To investigate the relationship between the waveguide length and the conversion efficiency, input power are keep constant, Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W, L changes from 0. 001m to 0. 1m with step 0. 001m. Output stroke power and output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to different waveguide length. pic] Figure 3. 1 Output stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that the longer the waveguide length, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the longer the waveguide length, the larger the propagation loss. The decreasing rate of the output stroke power decreases with the waveguide length. [pic] Figure 3. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that when the waveguide length is less than 0. 048m, the output anti-stroke power increases with the waveguide length. This implies that the gain is larger than the propagation loss in the waveguide. When the waveguide length is larger than 0. 48m, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the waveguide length. At waveguide length larger than 0. 048m, the propagation loss is larger than the gain of the anti-stroke power. The output anti-stroke power has a maximum value of 4. 5*10^3 when the waveguide is 0. 048m. Thus, the most effective waveguide length is 0. 048m. 5 Conclusion The conclusion serves the important function of drawing together the various sections of the written report. The conclusion is a summary, and the developments of the previous sections or chapters should be succinctly restated, important findings discussed and conclusions drawn from the whole study. In addition, you may list questions that have appeared in the course of the study that require additional research, beyond the limits of the project being reported. Where appropriate, recommendations for future work may be included. The conclusion should, however, leave the reader with an impression of completeness and of gain. Acknowledgment The author would like to express her deepest gratitude to A/P Luan Feng and PhD student Huang Ying for their guidance, assistance and advices. The author also wishes to acknowledge the funding support for this project from Nanyang Technological University under the Undergraduate Research Experience on Campus (URECA) programme. References The template will number citations consecutively within brackets [1]. The sentence punctuation follows the bracket [2]. Refer simply to the reference number, as in [3]—do not use â€Å"Ref. [3]† or reference [3]† except at the beginning of a sentence: â€Å"Reference [3] was the first †¦Ã¢â‚¬  Number footnotes separately in superscripts. Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it was cited. Do not put footnotes in the reference list. Use letters for table footnotes. Unless there are six authors or more give all authors’ names; do not use â€Å"et al. † Papers that have not been published, even if they have been submitted for publication, should be cited as â€Å"unpublished† [4]. Papers that have been accepted for publication should be cited as â€Å"in press† [5]. Capitalize only the first word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in translation journals, please give the English citation first, followed by the original foreign-language citation [6]. 1] G. Eason, B. Noble, and I. N. Sneddon, â€Å"On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions,† Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955. (references) 2] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed. , vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp. 68-73. 3] I. S. Jacobs and C. P. Bean, â€Å"Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy,† in Magnetism, vol. III, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271-350. 4] K. Elissa, â€Å"Title of paper if known,† unpublished. 5] R. Nicole, Title of paper with only first word capitalized,† J. Name Stand. Abbrev. , in press. 6] Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, â€Å"Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interface,† IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740-741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p. 301, 1982]. 7] M. Young, The Technical Writer’s Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989. How to cite Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Utilitarianism Essay Example

Utilitarianism Paper It was John Stuart Mills aim to revise and adapt Benthams ideas. Mill felt that this revision was necessary because many other writers had criticized Benthams work. Indeed Mill agreed with the criticisms that had been made and perhaps part of Mills response can be seen as an intellectual rebellion against his one time teacher. Mill attempted to adapt Benthams thoughts by introducing a number of different ideas and distinctions. One of the criticisms of Benthams philosophy was that it was a swine philosophy. The accusation was that, with its emphasis on pleasure, Utilitarianism made human beings no better than pigs. The first criticism that was made was that what is pleasure. Utilitarianism is based on the idea of Hedonism. Indeed this is what led many philosophers to suggest that Utilitarianism was a swine philosophy as it was simply based on pleasure. Mill did not attempt to respond to this accusation by suggesting a distinction between higher and lower pleasures. Another criticism that was made is human nature egoistic. Humans do not always seem to act in their own interest. For example, there are many examples of human beings risking their own life to save the life of another. This clearly is a problem for Benthams version of Utilitarianism although it is one of the things that Mill recognized. We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarianism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarianism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarianism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Is the principle of utility what we mean by morality is another criticism that was made by Mill. For a Utilitarian, an action is good if, and only if; it brings about the greatest good for the greatest number. In other words it does not matter about an individuals motives or how the greatest good for the greatest number is actually achieved. This goes against the idea that it is intentions, like love and care, which are important roles in morality. Finally the last criticism that was made is happiness the only thing that is important. For a Utilitarian the only thing that is important to them is the idea of happiness. Therefore anything that brings about happiness as the end is right. I think that are to many criticisms to what Bentham has said and that utilitarianism goes against most of the laws that we have in our country that we have today. For example, if someone was to murder someone because they didnt make them happy, then a Utilitarian might say that it made them happy consequentially. And also might make more people happy because it could be a serial killer that was just murdered.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

USS Minnesota (BB-22) in the Great White Fleet

USS Minnesota (BB-22) in the Great White Fleet USS Minnesota (BB-22) - Overview: Nation: United States Type: Battleship Shipyard: Newport News Shipbuilding Drydock Company Laid Down: October 27, 1903 Launched: April 8, 1905 Commissioned: March 9, 1907 Fate: Sold for scrap, 1924 USS Minnesota (BB-22) - Specifications Displacement: 16,000 tons Length: 456.3 ft. Beam: 76.9 ft. Draft: 24.5 ft. Speed: 18 knots Complement: 880 men Armament 4 Ãâ€" 12 in./45 cal guns8 Ãâ€" 8 in./45 cal guns12 Ãâ€" 7 in./45 cal guns20 Ãâ€" 3 in./50 cal guns12 Ãâ€" 3 pounders2 Ãâ€" 1 pounders4 Ãâ€" 21 in. torpedo tubes USS Minnesota (BB-22) - Design Construction: With construction beginning on the Virginia-class (USS Virginia, USS Nebraska, USS Georgia, USS , and USS ) of battleship in 1901, Secretary of the Navy John D. Long consulted the US Navys system of bureaus and boards for their input regarding the design of capital ships. While their thoughts centered on equipping the next class of battleships with four 12 guns, energetic debate continued over the types secondary armament. Following extensive discussions, it was decided to arm the new type with eight 8 guns placed in four waist turrets. These were to be supported by twelve rapid-fire 7 guns. Achieving a compromise with this armament, the new class pushed forward and on July 1, 1902 approval was received for construction of two battleships, USS Connecticut (BB-18) and USS (BB-19). Dubbed the Connecticut-class, this type would ultimately comprise six battleships. Laid down on October 27, 1903, work commenced on USS Minnesota at the Newport News Shipbuilding Drydock Company. Less than two years later, the battleship entered the water on April 8, 1905, with Rose Schaller, the daughter of a Minnesota state senator, acting as sponsor. Building continued for nearly two years before the ship entered commission on March 9, 1907, with Captain John Hubbard in command. Though the US Navys most modern type, the Connecticut-class was made obsolete that December when British Admiral Sir John Fisher introduced the all-big gun HMS Dreadnought. Departing Norfolk, Minnesota steamed north for a shakedown cruise off New England before returning the Chesapeake to take part in the Jamestown Exposition that April to September. USS Minnesota (BB-22) - Great White Fleet: In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt became concerned about the US Navys lack of strength in the Pacific due to the increasing danger posed by Japan. To demonstrate to the Japanese that the United States could easily switch its main battle fleet to the Pacific, he directed that a world cruise of the countrys battleships be planned. Dubbed the Great White Fleet, Minnesota, still commanded by Hubbard, was directed to join the forces Third Division, Second Squadron. Both the flagship of the division and squadron, Minnesota embarked Rear Admiral Charles Thomas. Other elements of the division included the battleships USS Maine (BB-10), USS Missouri (BB-11), and USS Ohio (BB-12). Leaving from Hampton Roads on December 16, the fleet sailed south through the Atlantic and made visits to Trinidad and Rio de Janeiro before reaching Punta Arenas, Chile on February 1, 1908. Passing through the Straits of Magellan, the fleet cruised in review off Valparaiso, Chile before making a port call at Cal lao, Peru. Departing on February 29, Minnesota and the other battleships spent three weeks conducting gunnery practice off Mexico the following month. Making port at San Francisco on May 6, the fleet paused in California for a short time before turning west for Hawaii. Steering southwest, Minnesota and the fleet arrived at New Zealand and Australia in August. After enjoying festive and elaborate port calls, which included parties, sporting events, and parades, the fleet moved north to the Philippines, Japan, and China. Concluding goodwill visits in these countries, Minnesota and the fleet transited the Indian Ocean and passed through the Suez Canal. Arriving in the Mediterranean, the fleet divided to show the flag in numerous ports before rendezvousing at Gibraltar. Reunited, it crossed the Atlantic and reached Hampton Roads on February 22 where it was greeted by Roosevelt. With the cruise over, Minnesota entered the yard for an overhaul that saw a cage foremast installed. USS Minnesota (BB-22) - Later Service: Resuming duty with the Atlantic Fleet, Minnesota spent much of the next three years employed off the East Coast though it did make one visit to the English Channel. During this period, it received a cage mainmast. In early 1912, the battleship shifted south to Cuban waters and in June aided in protecting American interests on the island during an insurrection known as the Negro Rebellion. The following year, Minnesota moved to the Gulf of Mexico as tensions between the United States and Mexico increased. Though the battleship returned home that fall, it spent much of 1914 off Mexico. Making two deployments to the area, it helped support the US occupation of Veracruz. With the conclusion of operations in Mexico, Minnesota resumed routine activities off the East Coast. It continued in this duty until being moved to the Reserve Fleet in November 1916. USS Minnesota (BB-22) - World War I: With the US entry into World War I in April 1917, Minnesota returned to active duty. Assigned to Battleship Division 4 in the Chesapeake Bay, it commenced operations as an engineering and gunnery training ship. On September 29, 1918, while conducting training off Fenwick Island Light, Minnesota struck a mine which had been laid by a German submarine. Though no one on board was killed, the explosion caused substantial damage to the battleships starboard side. Turning north, Minnesota limped to Philadelphia where it underwent five months of repairs. Emerging from the yard on March 11, 1919, it joined the Cruiser and Transport Force. In this role, it completed three trips to Brest, France to help return American servicemen from Europe. Completing this duty, Minnesota spent the summers of 1920 and 1921 as a training ship for midshipmen from the US Naval Academy. With the end of the latter years training cruise, it moved into reserve before being decommissioned on December 1. Idle for the next three years, it was sold for scrap on January 23, 1924 in accordance with the Washington Naval Treaty. Selected Sources DANFS: USS Minnesota (BB-22)NHHC: USS Minnesota (BB-22)NavSource: USS Minnesota (BB-22)

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Cite a Website in Oxford Referencing

How to Cite a Website in Oxford Referencing How to Cite a Website in Oxford Referencing With computers now everywhere, it’s common to cite a website or two in academic writing. And to do this with Oxford referencing, you’ll need two things: footnote citations and an entry in a bibliography. The format for Oxford citations may depend on which version you’re using, so remember to check your style guide if you have one. But if you’re not sure where to start, our guide to referencing a website should help. Referencing a Website in Footnote Citations Footnote citations are indicated via superscript numbers in the main text: This is how a citation should look in your document.1 The first time you reference a website, use the following format: n. Initial(s). Surname, â€Å"Page Title,† Website [website], publication date, section/paragraph number (if applicable), URL, accessed date. You should then end up with something like this: 1. P. Philips, â€Å"Going Beyond: How to Reach Mars,† Space Travel [website], 2015,, accessed August 2, 2018. If the website has more than one author, use â€Å"and† to separate the final two: 2. A. Moretti and T. Pepe, Mars Remains an Unattainable Dream [website], 2016,, accessed September 6, 2018. If the website has four or more authors, use â€Å"et al.† after the first name: 3. W. Ellis et al., â€Å"Has NASA Finally Outdone Itself?,† The Big Questions [website], 24 June 2014,, accessed September 4, 2016. If quoting part of a web page, note the paragraph or section after the date: 4. T. Harper, â€Å"Experiencing Space,† Space from Above [website], 2014, para. 10,, accessed September 5, 2018. Sometimes, you might not be able to find the author or date of publication for a page on a website. If this happens, use the publishing organization in place of the author and/or write â€Å"[no date]† in place of the date of publication: 5. Space from Above, â€Å"Endless Darkness,† Space from Above [website], [no date], para. 2,, accessed September 7, 2018. As shown above, if the publishing organization is the same as the website, you do not have to repeat this information after the page title. Subsequent Footnotes After citing a source once, you can use a shortened footnote format if you cite it again later in the document. One common approach is to give the author’s surname and a relevant paragraph number. Another approach is to use the Latin abbreviations â€Å"ibid.,† â€Å"op cit.,† and â€Å"loc. cit.†: Ibid. (meaning â€Å"in the same place†) – We use this to cite the same source twice in a row. These are known as consecutive citations. Make sure to include a new page number if you’re citing a different part of the same text. Op. cit. (â€Å"in the work cited†) – Used for citing a different part of the text in a non-consecutive citation (i.e., when you have cited at another source since the initial footnote). Give this after the author’s surname. If you have cited more than one source by the author, include a shortened source title. Loc. cit. (â€Å"in the place cited†) – As above, but we use this one when citing the same page as in the initial footnote citation. If you have one, it is worth checking your university’s style guide to see if it specifies a shortened citation format. But whichever method you use, make sure to apply it consistently in your document. Adding a Website in an Oxford Bibliography At the end of your document, you should add all cited sources to a bibliography. The format to use here for a website is as follows: Surname, Initial(s), â€Å"Page Title,† Website Name [website], date of publication, URL, accessed date. In practice, then, the bibliography entry for a website would look like this: Philips, P., â€Å"Going Beyond: How to Reach Mars,† Space Travel [website], 2015,, (accessed August 2, 2018). As with footnotes, if a website doesn’t have a named author, use the publishing organization. If there is no date, write â€Å"[no date]† to show this.

Friday, February 14, 2020


CONTEXTUAL STUDIES - THE PENGUIN AN THE UTOPIA - Essay Example The paper analyses the possible connections that exist between the 1934’s Penguin Pool and the modern Utopia. In so doing, the paper explores the relation between architecture and zeitgeist in terms of ideologies and the material production of space. Discussion Life and ideas of Berthold Lubetkin Berthold Lubetkin is considered one of the best architects ever in history. Many of his works have been landmarked in Britain. To add on this, his ideas are still being used in architectural discourse, as well as education worldwide (Allan & Sternberg, 2002). He pioneered design in Britain in the 1930s, with his works including the famous London Zoo penguin pool. According to Fisher (2007), Lubetkin viewed the world as a collection of static facts. These facts, he said, were never to be moved or disturbed. He added that however, that could not be the reality. To him, life was not all about creation or enjoying fixed values but rather humans enjoy processes. The whole is like a burning candle that result into change in one thing or another. To him, people were not built structures that looked as if they just landed there from the sky. As such, he looked at design as being something that could be manipulated to fit onto a given environment, at a given season. Things are not to look so permanent. Thus, dynamism is essential in architecture as it is a transformation process (Sheppard & Lousada, 2010). Using the transformation idea and dynamism, Lubetkin created the London Zoo penguin pool in 1934. He endeavoured to use the building as an opportunity to explore existing possibilities of the reinforced concrete in a creative manner. By 1934, reinforced concrete was a new building material (Perrin, 2002). He studied the behaviour of penguins and utilised the idea in coming up with the idea of the building. He created a penguin enclosure as well as a pool that provided an interesting environment for the penguins. There were also numerous viewing angles specifically for spectators to visit the place. It was a Modernist building that envisaged true clarity and style. Additionally, there was a large elliptical blue pool which provided the birds with a large swimming area. The blue pool, moreover, offers a contrast to the white concrete which was used in most of the design. The design included a shaded area which protects the birds from direct sun. Having gently curved walls is essential as it echoes the penguins’ cries. Through these aspects of design, Lubetkin demonstrates the need for relating architecture to the existing housing conditions. Thus, he showed this through satisfying the needs of the penguins. Furthermore, the structure demonstrates the need for coming up with a solution, which could be different in its appearance, as compared to the natural environment. However, the vital thing is for the solution to function as expected (Shore, 2010). Source: Allan & Sternberg, 2002. Modern architecture in 1920’s and 1930’s Ther e is a misconception that architecture in the 1920’s and 1930’s was old style. However, this period experienced art deco and the emergence of the modern style. The emphasis was on the streamlining of buildings and minimal use of colour. According to Page (2012), in her article titled â€Å"Period Houses: The 1920’s and 1930’s†, she looks examines modern design in 1920’s and 1930’s. Here, she explores the Villa Savoye in Paris which she