Monday, August 24, 2020

The Value of Virginity in Different Parts of the World Essay Example For Students

The Value of Virginity in Different Parts of the World Essay The reason for this exploration is to assess the worth given to virginity in various parts tooth world. As indicated by Wakefield, a virgin is, initially, a lady who has never had sex. Virginity is a condition of being a virgin, It is determined jog the Latin word Virgo, which means an explicitly unpracticed lady (Wakefield). There are a few reasons why numerous social orders esteem virginity in unmarried lady or young ladies. The reasons run from mens prevailing nature, to family esteems, to religion, and to some money related or legitimate increase. In many social orders, ladies have consistently been ruled by men. Men have a sense of safety to have a virgin lady of the hour. It is a wellspring of pride and fulfillment for a man to realize that nobody else has contacted his lady of the hour or spouse aside from him. This inclination has driven numerous social orders philosophy about the significance Of virginity among little youngsters, aside from that Virginity is viewed as an image of virtue, poise, and conventionality (George). Another motivation behind why virginity was so esteemed by certain social orders is a direct result of the shame connected to having a fatherless kid. We will compose a custom article on The Value of Virginity in Different Parts of the World explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now Most families anticipate that their little youngsters should remain virgins in such a case that they get impregnated before marriage, it becomes he issue of the family to hold up under the disgrace of having a jerk conceived in their family. Notwithstanding that, in numerous social orders, it is only an ethical issue-sex is acknowledged simply after marriage (Abramson), With the innovation of contraceptives, pregnancy happened to less concern, nonetheless, the most significant motivation behind why virginity is esteemed in most present day social orders is a direct result of religion. In both Christianity and Islam, sex before marriage is denounced In Christianity, it isn't just sexual entrance that is censured, yet other lustful sexual exercises are likewise denied (George), Virginity is a genuine issue in most Islamic nations. From my experience (my significant other is from an Islamic nation), discovered that if a young lady loses her virginity, her dad can beat or even execute her. There are numerous examples skirt the siblings of these young ladies were affected to execute their sisters for losing their virginity. This is on the grounds that they (the men) accept that she has carried disgrace and punishment to their family. Another significant motivation behind why virginity was esteemed in our history is on the grounds that marriage used to be a wellspring of increase, either as an endowment or as an agreement that benefits the young ladies family. In some Asian nations, virginity is significant on the grounds that suggests need to utilize their girls as a wellspring of upward versatility in the general public to higher situations, to pick up favor of a significant family or to keep their high class status or resources. They orchestrate union with suit their necessities (Abramson), In the western nations today, virginity is less esteemed. Truth be told, it is strange for a young lady to even now stay a virgin until her big day. In the event that a young lady is as yet a virgin at twenty five, she is Often disparaged, though, in customary center Asian social orders, virginity is as yet a serious deal. Men need their ladies to be virgins, and their ladies to be secured unassumingly. In Africa, a few social orders still exceptionally welcome a virgin lady of the hour. Generally, in most African societies, a lady of the hour should be a virgin, however that philosophy is evolving radically. In my study frequently Nigerian men (20 to 25 years of age), when inquired as to whether they want to wed just a virgin, just two out regularly men from Nigeria replied, yes! Two of them will value it, however would not give it a second thought if their ladies are not virgins while the remainder of them excused that virginity is significant for conjugal fulfillment. In a review distributed in London on The Economic Times titled, Asians Losing their Virginity (07/04/2007). The report as pushed howl, despite the fact that it doesn't specie/if the members were hitched or not before losing their virginity, it is as yet an impression of the worth connected to virginity in those nations. Individuals in Asian nations, including India, lose their virginity at an a lot more established age than those in the West, as indicated by an overall investigation of sexual conduct and prophylactic utilize distributed today(Asians). Malaysian were the Oldest to lost their virginity at 23. 0 years of age, trailed by Indians (22. 9) Singapore (22. 8), Chinese (22. 1), This (20. 5), Hong Congers (20. 2), Nigerian (19. 7) and Japanese (19. ) (Asians). By and large, age for first engaging in sexual relations was 19. 5, as per the investigation The Global Face of Sex, arranged by Dared Network, the social promoting arm of SSL International, which fabricates Dared condoms (Asians). The Austrian were the first to lose their virginity at 17. 3 years of age, trailed by Brazilian (17. 4), Germans (17. 6), New Slanderer (17 8), Australians (17. 9) and Americans (18. 0). Be that as it may, in spite of standing by longer, Malaysian came top among the individuals who said they were the most prepared for sex (41. 5 percent), trailed by the Dutch, Greeks, Americans and Australians. Conversely, Japanese, Nigerian, This and .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 , .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .postImageUrl , .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .focused content region { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 , .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44:hover , .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44:visited , .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44:active { border:0!important; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; mistiness: 1; change: darkness 250ms; webkit-progress: murkiness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44:active , .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44:hover { haziness: 1; progress: obscurity 250ms; webkit-progress: mistiness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relat ive; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .ctaText { outskirt base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content beautification: underline; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; fringe: none; fringe range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: intense; line-tallness: 26px; moz-outskirt span: 3px; content adjust: focus; content design: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-stature: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .ub84c304073e5 9e9d4b9171920a4baa44 .focused content { show: table; stature: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .ub84c304073e59e9d4b9171920a4baa44:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: The Great Gatsby Symbolism EssayHong Congers said were minimal prepared for first sexual experience, with under 13 percent saying they were OK with losing their virginity when they did, Meanwhile, in excess of 33% of Nigerian (37,S percent) said they felt constrained into losing their virginity by a long shot the most elevated rate (Asians). Taking everything into account, I have seen that, families and men in nations with high setting society, for instance, Mid-Asians that esteem religion and ethics will in general worth virginity in unmarried ladies more than in nations with low setting societies, for instance, Europeans, tha t religion and ethics has less impact. The other thing have interpreted from this hunt is that, there is a general inclination of men getting all the more less worried about the need of their lady of the hour to be a virgin. As I would like to think, it is a useful for little youngsters to save their virginity for their future spouses, however it is unjustifiable, for a man Who is explicitly dynamic to interest for a virgin lady of the hour.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Choose any country, assess its current macroeconomic position and Essay

Pick any nation, evaluate its current macroeconomic position and talk about what strategy choices may be received (or have been ado - Essay Example This is interpreted in the full scale level as the economy’s all out salary and absolute use. Gross domestic product estimates both the pay of the individuals in the economy and use as utilization, venture, government buys and net fares. We can evaluate the monetary exhibition of United Kingdom (UK) utilizing the financial pointers referenced previously. We start with investigation of the pattern in UK’s GDP. There were rises and falls in UK’s GDP as aftereffects of the financial vacillations throughout the years however the most recent figures in its patterns uncover the inspirational situation of UK. The UK figures show that GDP on a practically identical premise (consistent fundamental costs) developed by 0.5 percent in the year to end-September 2010 and developed by 0.7 percent in the second from last quarter of 2010 ( 2011). These figures are the aftereffects of the accomplished increment in the two administrations and development segments , 0.6 % and 1.6% individually and the fall underway part by 0.4 %. This pattern was introduced in Figure 1. FIGURE 1. UK GDP GROWTH RATE (2000-2010) In this chart, UK’s GDP was sure from year 2000 up to the principal quarter of 2008 and began to enroll negative development rates in the second quarter of 2008. There was a negative GDP hole as the genuine GDP was not exactly the potential yield. This was that year when the worldwide downturn hits most nations around the globe. Downturn is one of the financial vacillations that economies need to face and go through in light of the fact that inability to do so will cause financial downturn. It is a time of declining genuine GDP, joined by lower genuine pay and higher joblessness. UK is one of the influenced economies by the ongoing worldwide emergency. The impacts were seen and felt by everybody in the economy. The discoveries of a study of right around 5,000 little, medium and enormous organizations proposed that UK confronted a genuine danger of downturn inside months (BBC 2008). Significant organizations revealed fall in their creation and deals. Firms especially in the assembling and administrations division have encountered genuine income issues as aftereffects of the most minimal degrees of deals and requests, work desires and certainty hit. The two customers and firms were losing trust in the recuperation of the economy. This made them to hang on close to their cash and cease from spending, making the utilization and speculation level low. We as a whole know from our round progression of financial exercises that uses on purchasers buys and utilization will be the pay of merchants of items and suppliers of administrations. The impacts of the adjustments in utilization conduct of the family units were reached out to the makers. House developers needs to eliminate their positions and announced that fulfillment of their home deals fell. The administrations firms like cafés, exercise centers and visit ad ministrators were likewise hard hit by the lessening in utilization level of the family units. The low volumes of creation and deals of the organizations made the genuine salary fall and added to higher expansion rate (Friedman and Schwartz 1982, p.253). More firms have chosen stop their creation exercises on the grounds that the current condition won’

Thursday, July 16, 2020

Double Doctoring for Getting More Prescription Drugs

Double Doctoring for Getting More Prescription Drugs Addiction Drug Use Prescription Medications Print Double Doctoring for Getting More Prescription Drugs By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on October 26, 2015 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on January 07, 2020 Double doctoring is a way of getting more medications prescribed than is medically necessary. Universal Images Group/Getty Images More in Addiction Drug Use Prescription Medications Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Ecstasy/MDMA Hallucinogens Opioids Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery The phrase double doctoring, which is also known as doctor shopping, has been used more and more in medical circles, but many patients dont know what it means. It refers to the deliberate use of more than one physician in order to obtain prescriptions for a greater amount of medications than would be prescribed by a single physician. How It Happens Usually, a doctor will prescribe their patient a drug in the amount and dosage that is necessary for the legitimate treatment of their current medical condition. Double doctoring happens when some patients actively seek out additional doctors to obtain more of the same medication, or to obtain a different medication which has the same effect as the one they were prescribed originally. Double doctoring is a problem in the medical field because it is a type of dishonesty that makes it difficult for doctors to do their jobs properly. Patients might mislead or even lie to the additional doctors; they might not disclose to the additional doctor or doctors that they already have the medication from the original doctor. They might obtain a stronger drug, in larger dosage and quantities, by faking or exaggerating their symptoms. This can result in doctors distrusting all patients seeking the types of medications often obtained by double doctoring, such as painkillers and tranquilizers, leading to some innocent patients being under-medicated for genuine conditions, or worse, feeling judged or mistreated by their physicians. Double doctoring also leads to large numbers of double-doctoring patients developing addictions to these medications or even dying from overdoses. The risk of addiction and overdose has led many doctors to become increasingly cautious about prescribing these medications. Legal Barriers to Obtaining Prescription Pain Drugs Why It Happens Typically, patients engage in double doctoring for the following reasons: The patient might want to obtain large amounts of medications they have become addicted to, such as opioid (narcotic) pain medications (like Oxycontin, Percocet or Vicodin). This can happen when the patient needs to take more of the drug to get the same effect, but their doctor is giving them a prescription for the medication in the dosage that was effective previously and is unwilling to increase the dosage.The patient might simply want to obtain enough of the medication to maintain their addiction to painkillers. This can happen if a patient has been prescribed a painkiller for a legitimate pain condition for a short period of time, and wants to continue to use the substance, even though the pain relief is no longer required.The patient may want to re-sell medications in order to obtain money to buy other drugs or support another behavioral addiction, or because they need or want money for some other purpose. This is a form of drug dealing or trafficking.The patient may intend to r e-use the drugs in another form, for example, crushing stimulant drugs (like Adderall) prescribed for ADD) to sell as a recreational stimulant, or to mix with or cut street amphetamines. Again, this is a form of drug dealing or trafficking. Doctor shopping is also the act of seeking a doctor who is well-known among the patient population, typically by word of mouth, for being generous with medication types and doses. This technique has become more popular with the rise of electronic patient-tracking, which helps prevent double prescriptions. Why Your Doctor Might Not Want to Prescribe Pain Meds The Dangers of Doctor Shopping Due to the ongoing devastation of the opioid epidemic, with  increasing rates of substance use, addiction, and overdose from prescription painkillers such as fentanyl, and illicit opioids, such as heroin, regulatory authorities have been increasingly aware of and cracking down on the process of doctor shopping. Some U.S. states have even criminalized the practice. At the very least, most U.S. states have created a database that doctors and pharmacists can log in to if they want to check up on a patient who they suspect is a bit too eager for narcotic painkillers. Called prescription drug monitoring programs, these systems are designed to help healthcare providers identify doctor shoppers. Although awareness is growing among physicians, research indicates that only about half of doctors take the time to use these drug monitoring databases. These new systems can also help identify those physicians who doll out dangerous medications too casually. Increasingly, state medical licensing boards are  gaining access to the programs and investigating the heaviest prescribing doctors in their state. In recent years, doctors have also undergone education and training about the dangers of prescribing unneeded medication.   The Possible Downside of Cracking Down Unfortunately, some experts say that the crackdown on doctor shopping has contributed to the current heroin epidemic sweeping our country â€" heroin use has increased 63 percent in 11 years, according to U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As prescription pain meds become more difficult to obtain (and therefore more costly), many addicts have turned to heroin as a more available and less-expensive option.   What You Should Know About Heroin

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Sigmund Freud, Joseph Conrad, And Tadeusz Borowski

Sigmund Freud, Joseph Conrad, and Tadeusz Borowski were some of the most influential voices during 20th century Europe. Europe at the time was transitioning from being one of the most powerful and intellectual nations, to now experiencing human suffering, revolutions, and war. Due to this, these intellectual thinkers began to drift away from 19th-century enlightenment ideas, such as liberty, progress, and a constitutional government. They began to question Europe s achievements and started criticizing progress, rationality, and human nature. Through their experience, ideas, and literature were able to see the what caused the change in society and their views on it . Freud mainly focuses on human nature and questions the desire, ideas ,and beliefs that shape a human, he then further analyses them. We see in his literature, Civilization and its Disconnect, that he questions religion and the belief in God. He himself does not believe in God, but wants to know why many people follow and trust something that they cannot see. He also questions the concept of human relationships. Knowing that a two person relationship and interaction is inevitable and that it is a part of life, but he does not know if a third relationship, and further on, is necessary. Regardless, human relationships are a part of society, and one of causes of civilizations, which Freud defines as â€Å"the whole some of achievement and the regulations which distinguish our lives† (Freud). With one of the achievements

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing 1984 And Fahrenheit 451 - 912 Words

Both 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 predict a dystopian future where information is tightly controlled and the populace seems to care little for the fact that they are being lied to and manipulated into working for the ambitions of their government. Both governments in the story have taken control of the media and this the population, and both characters are apart of agencies that help keep the government in control of the people. In Fahrenheit 451 the man is a fireman and burns all of the books that he can find, this keeps the population dumb and easily controllable. In 1984 Winston works for the Ministry of Truth, its job is to help edit news and entertainment in order to keep the party in line and be able to misinform the prolls. Both of these characters unknowingly worked for the party and political establishment. In Fahrenheit 451 Faber a retired English professor was in the minority in fighting for the right to have books. He is an older man and relies on the younger Guy Montag in order to help him achieve his goals of preserving the knowledge of books for a future generation. Guy Montag is a middle aged man similarly to Winston who also works at keeping the political establishment in power through the burning of books. The society within 1984 though much like the society in Fahrenheit 451 has many differences mainly in the way it is set up and how the government runs. The Inner party makes up only 2% of those that live within Oceania. They make all of the policies, andShow MoreRelatedComparing 1984 And Fahrenheit 451928 Words   |  4 Pages1984 and Fahrenheit 451 1984, written by George Orwell, and Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury, are similar to each other, however they also have several distinct differences. Both 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 are dystopian themed novels that deal with an overbearing and extremely powerful government. The nations in both novels are involved in wars that never seem to end, and their main characters begin to doubt the government and what society expects of everyone. In both 1984 and Fahrenheit 451, theRead MoreComparing Dystopic Worlds in George Orwells 1984 and Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451.2257 Words   |  10 Pagesimage of utopia, and yet to the reader seems like a foreign, inhumane residence dominated by an all-powerful government. George Orwells 1984, and Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 depicts two different dystopic worlds. The settings of both books are different and the characters are unique; however, both of these books are also very similar. 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 are similar dystopic literatures by a common theme of censorship in which the government withholds or censors information, by a similar threadRead More 198451: The Year of the Salamander Essay1864 Words   |  8 Pages198451: The Year of the Salamander When comparing the masterpieces of George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four and Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 the astute reader is immediately able to see a minimum of two recurring themes in both of them. â€Å"Orwell had produced an imaginative treatise of totalitarianism, cutting across all ideologies, warning of the threat to humanity should any government, of whatever political complexion, assume absolute power† (Nineteen Eighty-Four 12). Meanwhile Bradbury describedRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesConflict 375 SKILL LEARNING 376 Interpersonal Conflict Management 376 Mixed Feelings About Conflict 376 Diagnosing the Type of Interpersonal Conflict 378 Conflict Focus 378 Conflict Source 380 Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management Approach 383 Comparing Conflict Management and Negotiation Strategies 386 Selection Factors 386 Resolving Interpersonal Confrontations Using the Collaborative Approach A General Framework for Colla borative Problem Solving 391 The Four Phases of Collaborative Problem SolvingRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 Pages4 Hypotheses Tests for a Population Mean 550 10.5 Power and Probability of Type II Error 562 10.6 Interpreting and Communicating the Results of Statistical Analyses 571 Activity 10.1 Comparing the t and z Distributions 574 Activity 10.2 A Meaningful Paragraph 575 Graphing Calculator Explorations 580 11 Comparing Two Populations or Treatments 583 11.1 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples 583 11.2 Inferences Concerning theRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagestime, but the only evidence for this was Nathan’s own claim that he was 10 miles away at the time. 4. Evaluate the quality of this argument: All ice eventually melts when heated to over 47 degrees Fahrenheit. The ice in the refrigerator of the President of France was heated to over 47 degrees Fahrenheit that day. So, the ice in the President’s refrigerator eventually melted.67 This is a very strong argument. It is deductively valid and all its premises (there’s just one) are true. 66 The argument

Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide Free Essays

Wavelength Conversion by Degenerate Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide Abstract – Four-wave mixing (FWM) is one of the interesting nonlinearities in optical systems. It is mainly used for wavelength conversion. To investigate the factors that affect the wavelength conversion efficiency, the evolution of Four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon waveguide is modeled using matlab. We will write a custom essay sample on Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide or any similar topic only for you Order Now The method of modeling is described. The effects of input pump power and waveguide length on the conversion efficiency are investigated. Results show that when propagating along a 0. 048m silicon waveguide, both the input pump power and stroke power decreases, while anti-stroke power increases first and then decreases along the waveguide. It is also shown that for a 0. 048 silicon waveguide, output anti-stroke power is the maximum when the input pump power is 3W. Also, when the input pump power is kept constant, there is a most effective waveguide length for wavelength conversion. Keywords -FWM; model; conversion efficiency; input pump power; waveguide length 1 Introduction Four-wave mixing (FWM) is an inter modulation phenomenon in optical systems, whereby interaction between three waves (two pump waves and a signal wave) produce a fourth wave (idler wave) [1]. This phenomenon can be used for all optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) and entangled photon generation [2, 3]. As extremely small core of si wires produce the nonlinear optical effect even under low optical power, Silicon is used as waveguide in our project for practical wavelength conversion by FWM process with longer waveguide lengths and smaller propagation loss[4]. Factors that affect optical wavelength conversion are being studied to enhance the conversion efficiency. It has therefore become important to study FWM in silicon waveguide theoretically to increase the conversion efficiency for further experiment. In our project, FWM matlab to study the factors that affect the conversion efficiency. This paper discusses the factors that affect FWM’s conversion efficiency in silicon waveguide. Theoretical treatment is presented in section 2, where FWM in silicon waveguide is described. The method to model FWM in silicon waveguide using matlab is described in section 3. Results are shown in section 4. Results show that both the input pump power and the waveguide length play an important part in the FWM’s conversion efficiency. 2 THEORY The FWM process involves the interaction of four waves (two Pump waves, one signal and one idler wave) as they propagates along a medium. In our project, silicon waveguide is used as the medium. The schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide is shown in figure 1. Here, E represents the electric field of the respective waves and normalized such that power P=|E|^2. Subscripts ‘p’, ‘s’ and ‘a’ represent pump, signal and idler respectively. The superscript ‘f’ represents forward propagating waves. [pic] Figure 1 Schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide . 3 METHODOLOGY The evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide can be modeled by the following differential equations [1]. [pic][pic][pic][pic] where Aeff is the waveguide effective core area, ? is the wavelength, ? is the linear propagation loss and ? is the TPA coefficient, ? is the FCA cross section and ? eff is the effective carrier lifetime. h and c follow their usual physical meaning of Plank’s constant and free-space speed of light respectively. k denotes the linear phase mismatch and can be expressed as[pic]. ? is the nonlinear parameter assumed to be the same for three wavelengths and defined as [pic] where n2 is the nonlinear refractive index. To simulate the evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide, the above four differential equation are solved simultaneously using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF) method [2]. | Parameters |Input-Output simulation values | |? |100/4. 34 m-1 | |Aeff |0. 17? 10^(-12) m2 | |? 0. 7? 10^(-11) m/W | |? p |1310? 10^(-9) m | |? eff |1? 10^(-9) s | |c |2. 998? 10^(8) | |h |6. 626? 10^(-34) Js | |? k |0 m/s | |? p |1. 0297? 10-21m2 | |? |2. 43 ? 10^(-11) m/W | 4 RESULTs and discussion . 1 Modelling of FWM in silicon waveguide Given Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pump power, stroke power and anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the position in the waveguide. [pic][pic][pic]The figures above show that when propagating in the waveguide, both the pump power and stroke power decrease while the anti-stoke power increases. This is as expected, as the interaction of the pump wave and stroke wave produce the anti-stroke wave. The increase of the anti-stroke power comes from the decrease of the pump and stroke power. It can be seen that, at the end of the waveguide, the pump power is only 0. 26W and the stoke power is only 0. 026W. Both of them decrease 74% of their original power. Both the pump power and stroke power decrease fast at the beginning, and then their decrease rate becomes slower when propagating further in the waveguide. This implies that the higher the pump power and the stroke power, the higher the propagation loss. As a result, the anti-stroke power increases fast at the beginning and then its increasing rate slows down. At the length of 0. 42m, the power of the anti-stroke reaches its maximum value which is about 3. 2*10^-5W. Then the anti-stroke power starts to decrease slowly. This may be because when the pump and stroke power is small, the gain of the anti-stroke power is less than its propagation loss. 4. 2 Effects of input pump power on conversion efficiency Given Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pp changes from 0 to 10W with step 0. 2W. The graph of the output stroke power and the output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the input pump power. [pic] Figure 2. 1 Output stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that the larger the input pump power, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the larger the input pump power, the larger the propagation loss. The output stroke decreases slower when the input pump power is higher. [pic] Figure 2. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that when the input pump power is less than3W, the higher the input pump power, the higher the output anti-stroke power. This is as expected, as more input power can be converted to anti-stroke power when the input pump power is larger. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the input pump power. As the higher the input pump power, the higher the propagation loss. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the propagation loss dominates. 4. 3 Effects of waveguide length on conversion efficiency To investigate the relationship between the waveguide length and the conversion efficiency, input power are keep constant, Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W, L changes from 0. 001m to 0. 1m with step 0. 001m. Output stroke power and output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to different waveguide length. pic] Figure 3. 1 Output stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that the longer the waveguide length, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the longer the waveguide length, the larger the propagation loss. The decreasing rate of the output stroke power decreases with the waveguide length. [pic] Figure 3. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that when the waveguide length is less than 0. 048m, the output anti-stroke power increases with the waveguide length. This implies that the gain is larger than the propagation loss in the waveguide. When the waveguide length is larger than 0. 48m, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the waveguide length. At waveguide length larger than 0. 048m, the propagation loss is larger than the gain of the anti-stroke power. The output anti-stroke power has a maximum value of 4. 5*10^3 when the waveguide is 0. 048m. Thus, the most effective waveguide length is 0. 048m. 5 Conclusion The conclusion serves the important function of drawing together the various sections of the written report. The conclusion is a summary, and the developments of the previous sections or chapters should be succinctly restated, important findings discussed and conclusions drawn from the whole study. In addition, you may list questions that have appeared in the course of the study that require additional research, beyond the limits of the project being reported. Where appropriate, recommendations for future work may be included. The conclusion should, however, leave the reader with an impression of completeness and of gain. Acknowledgment The author would like to express her deepest gratitude to A/P Luan Feng and PhD student Huang Ying for their guidance, assistance and advices. The author also wishes to acknowledge the funding support for this project from Nanyang Technological University under the Undergraduate Research Experience on Campus (URECA) programme. References The template will number citations consecutively within brackets [1]. The sentence punctuation follows the bracket [2]. Refer simply to the reference number, as in [3]—do not use â€Å"Ref. [3]† or reference [3]† except at the beginning of a sentence: â€Å"Reference [3] was the first †¦Ã¢â‚¬  Number footnotes separately in superscripts. Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it was cited. Do not put footnotes in the reference list. Use letters for table footnotes. Unless there are six authors or more give all authors’ names; do not use â€Å"et al. † Papers that have not been published, even if they have been submitted for publication, should be cited as â€Å"unpublished† [4]. Papers that have been accepted for publication should be cited as â€Å"in press† [5]. Capitalize only the first word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in translation journals, please give the English citation first, followed by the original foreign-language citation [6]. 1] G. Eason, B. Noble, and I. N. Sneddon, â€Å"On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions,† Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955. (references) 2] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed. , vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp. 68-73. 3] I. S. Jacobs and C. P. Bean, â€Å"Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy,† in Magnetism, vol. III, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271-350. 4] K. Elissa, â€Å"Title of paper if known,† unpublished. 5] R. Nicole, Title of paper with only first word capitalized,† J. Name Stand. Abbrev. , in press. 6] Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, â€Å"Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interface,† IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740-741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p. 301, 1982]. 7] M. Young, The Technical Writer’s Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989. 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Saturday, April 25, 2020

Utilitarianism Essay Example

Utilitarianism Paper It was John Stuart Mills aim to revise and adapt Benthams ideas. Mill felt that this revision was necessary because many other writers had criticized Benthams work. Indeed Mill agreed with the criticisms that had been made and perhaps part of Mills response can be seen as an intellectual rebellion against his one time teacher. Mill attempted to adapt Benthams thoughts by introducing a number of different ideas and distinctions. One of the criticisms of Benthams philosophy was that it was a swine philosophy. The accusation was that, with its emphasis on pleasure, Utilitarianism made human beings no better than pigs. The first criticism that was made was that what is pleasure. Utilitarianism is based on the idea of Hedonism. Indeed this is what led many philosophers to suggest that Utilitarianism was a swine philosophy as it was simply based on pleasure. Mill did not attempt to respond to this accusation by suggesting a distinction between higher and lower pleasures. Another criticism that was made is human nature egoistic. Humans do not always seem to act in their own interest. For example, there are many examples of human beings risking their own life to save the life of another. This clearly is a problem for Benthams version of Utilitarianism although it is one of the things that Mill recognized. We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarianism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarianism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Utilitarianism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Is the principle of utility what we mean by morality is another criticism that was made by Mill. For a Utilitarian, an action is good if, and only if; it brings about the greatest good for the greatest number. In other words it does not matter about an individuals motives or how the greatest good for the greatest number is actually achieved. This goes against the idea that it is intentions, like love and care, which are important roles in morality. Finally the last criticism that was made is happiness the only thing that is important. For a Utilitarian the only thing that is important to them is the idea of happiness. Therefore anything that brings about happiness as the end is right. I think that are to many criticisms to what Bentham has said and that utilitarianism goes against most of the laws that we have in our country that we have today. For example, if someone was to murder someone because they didnt make them happy, then a Utilitarian might say that it made them happy consequentially. And also might make more people happy because it could be a serial killer that was just murdered.